Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of consolidation

        The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Douglas Dynamics, Inc. and its direct wholly-owned subsidiary, Douglas Dynamics, L.L.C., and its indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries, Douglas Dynamics Finance Company (an inactive subsidiary) and Fisher, LLC (hereinafter collectively referred to as the "Company"). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of estimates

        The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Accordingly, actual results could differ from those estimates.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

        The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value.

Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts

        The Company carries its accounts receivable at their face amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. The majority of the Company's accounts receivable are due from distributors of truck equipment. Credit is extended based on an evaluation of a customer's financial condition. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes the allowance for doubtful accounts based on a combination of specific customer circumstances and credit conditions based on a history of write-offs and collections. A receivable is considered past due if payments have not been received within agreed upon invoice terms. Accounts receivable are written off after all collection efforts have been exhausted. The Company takes a security interest in the inventory as collateral for the receivable but often does not have a priority security interest.

Financing program

        The Company is party to a financing program in which certain distributors may elect to finance their purchases from the Company through a third party financing company. The Company provides the third party financing company recourse against the Company regarding the collectability of the receivable under the program due to the fact that if the third party financing company is unable to collect from the distributor the amounts due in respect of the product financed, the Company would be obligated to repurchase any remaining inventory related to the product financed and reimburse any legal fees incurred by the financing company. During the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, distributors financed purchases of $2,926, $1,579 and $2,752 through this financing program, respectively. At both December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012, there were $0 of uncollectible outstanding receivables related to sales financed under the financing program. The amount owed by our distributors to the third party financing company under this program at December 31, 2013 and 2012 was $1,300 and $943, respectively. The Company was required to repurchase repossessed inventory of $0, $233, and $41 for the years ended December 31, 2013, December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.

        In the past, minimal losses have been incurred under this agreement. However, an adverse change in distributor retail sales could cause this situation to change and thereby require the Company to repurchase repossessed units. Any repossessed units are inspected to ensure they are current, unused product and are restocked and resold.

Interest Rate Swap

        As required by the debt agreement the Company entered into in the second quarter of 2011, the Company entered into an interest-rate swap agreement to hedge against the potential impact on earnings from increases in market interest rates. Under the interest rate swap agreement, effective as of July 18, 2011 the Company either receives or makes payments on a monthly basis based on the differential between 6.335% and LIBOR plus 4.25% (with a LIBOR floor of 1.5%). See Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive income (loss) for treatment of gains and losses on the interest rate swap agreement.


        Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Market is determined based on estimated realizable values. Inventory costs are primarily determined by the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. The Company periodically reviews its inventory for slow moving, damaged and discontinued items and provides reserves to reduce such items identified to their recoverable amounts.

Property, plant and equipment

        Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using straight-line methods over the estimated useful lives for financial statement purposes and an accelerated method for income tax reporting purposes. The estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:


Land improvements and buildings

    15 - 40  

Machinery and equipment

    3 - 20  

Furniture and fixtures

    3 - 12  

Mobile equipment and other

    3 - 10  

        Depreciation expense was $3,068, $2,819, and $2,975 for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

        Expenditures for renewals and improvements that significantly add to the productive capacity or extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to operations when incurred. Repairs and maintenance expenses amounted to $3,509, $2,855 and $4,025 for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. When assets are sold or retired, the cost of the asset and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any gain or loss is recognized in the results of operations.

Impairment of long-lived assets

        Long-lived assets are reviewed for potential impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by comparison of the carrying value of such assets to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. If the carrying value of an asset exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment provision is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or the fair value of the asset, less costs of disposition. Management of the Company considers such factors as current results, trends and future prospects, current market value, and other economic and regulatory factors in performing these analyses. The Company determined that no long-lived assets were impaired as of December 31, 2013 and 2012.

Goodwill and other intangible assets

        Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually as of December 31, or sooner if impairment indicators arise. The fair value of indefinite-lived intangible assets is estimated based upon a market approach. In reviewing goodwill for impairment, potential impairment is identified by comparing the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. The Company has determined it has one reporting unit. When the fair value is less than the carrying value of the net assets of the reporting unit, including goodwill, an impairment loss may be recognized. The Company has determined that goodwill and indefinite lived assets were not impaired as of December 31, 2013 and 2012.

        Intangible assets with estimable useful lives are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives and are reviewed for potential impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. The Company amortizes its distribution network intangible over periods ranging from 15 to 20 years, trademarks over 7 to 25 years, patents over 7 to 20 years, customer relationships over 19.5 years and noncompete agreements over 5 years. The Company has determined that finite lived intangible assets were not impaired as of December 31, 2013 and 2012.

Income taxes

        Deferred income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates. Deferred income tax provisions or benefits are based on the change in the deferred tax assets and liabilities from period to period. Deferred income tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred income tax asset will not be realized. Additionally, when applicable, the Company would classify interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.

Deferred financing costs

        The costs of obtaining financing are capitalized and amortized over the term of the related financing on a basis that approximates the effective interest method. The changes in deferred financing costs are as follows:

Balance at January 1, 2011

  $ 953  

Write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs



Deferred financing costs capitalized on new debt


Amortization of deferred financing costs

    (687 )

Balance at December 31, 2011


Deferred financing costs capitalized on new debt


Amortization of deferred financing costs

    (776 )

Balance at December 31, 2012


Amortization of deferred financing costs



Balance at December 31, 2013

  $ 2,216  

        For the year ended December 31, 2012, the Company extended the term on its revolving line of credit and capitalized $168 of deferred financing costs associated with the refinancing. For the year ended December 31, 2011, the Company recorded the write-off of deferred financing costs as a loss on extinguishment of debt, in the consolidated statements of income as a result of an amendment to the Company's term loan facility. The amendment of the term loan facility resulted in a significant modification of the debt which resulted in the write off of unamortized capitalized deferred financing costs of $335.

Fair Value

        Fair value is the price at which an asset could be exchanged in a current transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties. A liability's fair value is defined as the amount that would be paid to transfer the liability to a new obligor, not the amount that would be paid to settle the liability with the creditor. Fair value measurements are categorized into one of three levels based on the lowest level of significant input used: Level 1 (unadjusted quoted prices in active markets); Level 2 (observable market inputs available at the measurement date, other than quoted prices included in Level 1); and Level 3 (unobservable inputs that cannot be corroborated by observable market data).

        The following table presents financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis and discloses the fair value of long-term debt:

  Fair Value at
  Fair Value at



Other assets(a)

  $ 1,127   $ 491  

Total Assets

  $ 1,127   $ 491  



Long term debt(b)

    110,439     110,566  

Other long-term liabilities—




Interest rate swap(d)

    282     544  

Total Liabilities

  $ 114,308   $ 111,110  

Included in other assets is the cash surrender value of insurance policies on various individuals that are associated with the Company. The carrying amounts of these insurance policies approximates their fair value.

The fair value of the Company's long-term debt, including current maturities, is estimated using discounted cash flows based on the Company's current incremental borrowing rates for similar types of borrowing arrangements, which is a Level 2 input for all periods presented. Meanwhile, long-term debt is recorded at carrying amount, net of discount, as disclosed on the face of the balance sheet.

Included in other long term liabilities is an obligation for a portion of the potential earn out incurred in conjunction with the acquisition of substantially all of TrynEx's assets. The carrying amount of the earn out approximates its fair value. Fair value is based upon Level 3 inputs of a monte carlo simulation analysis using key inputs of forecasted future sales and financial performance as well as a growth rate reduced by the market required rate of return. See reconciliation of liability included below:


Balance at January 1




Adjustments to fair value


Balance at December 31

  $ 3,587  
Valuation models are calibrated to initial trade price. Subsequent valuations are based on observable inputs to the valuation model (e.g. interest rates and credit spreads). Model inputs are changed only when corroborated by market data. A credit risk adjustment is made using observable market credit spreads. Thus, inputs used to determine fair value of the interest rate swap are Level 2 inputs.

Concentration of credit risk

        The Company's cash is deposited with multiple financial institutions. At times, deposits in these institutions exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes that it is not exposed to any significant risk on these balances.

        No distributor represented more than 10% of the Company's net sales or accounts receivable during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.

Revenue recognition

        The Company recognizes revenues upon shipment to the customer, which is when risk of loss passes and all of the following conditions are satisfied: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) the price is fixed or determinable; (iii) collectability is reasonably assured; and (iv) the product has been shipped and the Company has no further obligations. Customers have no right of return privileges. Historically, product returns have not been material and are permitted on an exception basis only.

        The Company offers a variety of discounts and sales incentives to its distributors. The estimated liability for sales discounts and allowances is recorded at the time of sale as a reduction of net sales. The liability is estimated based on the costs of the program, the planned duration of the program and historical experience.

Cost of sales

        Cost of sales includes all costs associated with the manufacture of the Company's products, including raw materials, purchased parts, freight, plant operating expenses, property insurance and taxes, and plant depreciation. All payroll costs and employee benefits for the hourly workforce, manufacturing management, and engineering costs are included in cost of sales.

Warranty cost recognition

        The Company accrues for estimated warranty costs as revenue is recognized. See note 9 for further details.

Advertising expenses

        Advertising expenses include costs for the production of marketing media, literature, CD-ROM, and displays. The Company participates in trade shows and advertises in the yellow pages and billboards. Advertising expenses amounted to $3,037, $1,815 and $2,718 for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The Company also provides its distributors with pre-approved, cooperative advertising programs, which are recorded as advertising expense in selling, general and administrative expense. All costs associated with the Company's advertising programs are expensed as incurred.

Shipping and handling costs

        Generally, shipping and handling costs are paid directly by the customer to the shipping agent. Those shipping and handling costs billed by the Company are recorded as a component of sales with the corresponding costs included in cost of sales.

Share-based payments

        The Company applies the guidance codified in ASC 718—Compensation—Stock Compensation. This standard requires the measurement of the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award at the grant date and recognition of the compensation expense over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award (generally the vesting period). Because the Company used the minimum-value method to measure compensation cost for employee stock options prior to January 1, 2006, the date on which ASC 718 was adopted, under this previous guidance, it was required to use the prospective method of adoption for this standard. Under the prospective method, the Company continues to account for non-vested awards outstanding at the date of adoption using the same method as prior to adoption for financial statement recognition purposes. All awards granted, modified, or settled after the date of adoption are accounted for using the measurement, recognition, and attribution provisions of ASC 718.

Comprehensive income (loss)

        Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner resources and is comprised of net income or loss and "other comprehensive income (loss)". The Company's other comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of the adjustments for pension and postretirement benefit liabilities as well as the impact of its interest rate swap. The interest rate swap contract on $50,000 notional amount of the term loan expires in December 2014. The Company does not expect to record any unrecognized loss into earnings in the next twelve months. Additionally, other comprehensive income (loss) includes the net income (loss) of the Company plus/minus the Company's adjustments for its defined benefit retirement plans based on the measurement date as of the Company's year-end. See Note 19 for the components of accumulated other comprehensive loss.

Segment Reporting

        The Company operates in and reports as a single operating segment, which is the manufacture and sale of snow and ice control products. Net sales are generated through the sale of snow and ice control products and accessories to distributors. The chief operating decision maker (the Company's Chief Executive Officer) manages and evaluates its operations as one segment primarily due to similarities in the nature of the products, production processes and methods of distribution. All of the Company's identifiable assets are located in the United States. The Company's sales outside North America are not material, representing less than 3% of net sales.

        The Company's product offerings primarily consist of snow and ice control products and accessories. Equipment and parts and accessories are each a similar class of products based on similar customer usage.

  Year ended December 31,  
  2013   2012   2011  


  $ 164,460   $ 123,308   $ 177,806  

Parts and accessories

    29,860     16,725     30,992  

Net Sales

  $ 194,320   $ 140,033   $ 208,798